Clinical and technical validation studies for diagnostic companies

• Detection of nonhemagglutinating influenza a(h3) viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in quantitative influenza virus culture.
• Performance evaluation of the new Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0 for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA.
• Comparison of the Abbott Realtime HIV-1 and HCV viral load assays with commercial competitor assays.
• Evaluation of the analytical performance of the new Abbott RealTime RT-PCRs for the quantitative detection of HCV and HIV-1 RNA.
• Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott RealTime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA.

Clinical studies and cases

Influenza viruses | Dengue viruses:
• Fatal Dengue in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease of Sickle Cell Anemia in Curacao: two case reports.
• Validation of self-swab for virologic confirmation of influenza virus infections in a community setting.
• Emergence of a multidrug-resistant pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.
• Fatal oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus infection.
• Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Ohter Viruses:
• Deep sequencing does not reveal additional transmitted mutations in patients diagnosed with HIV-1 variants with single nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations.
• Therapy failure resulting from superinfection by a drug resistant HIV variant.
• Discordance between HCV RNA assays for week 24 HCV RNA determination during pegylated interferon-a/ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C.
• Fatal human rabies due to Duvenhage virus from a bat in Kenya: failure of treatment with coma-induction, ketamine, and antiviral drugs.
• Norovirus in a Dutch tertiary care hospital (2002-2007): frequent nosocomial transmission and dominance of GIIb strains in young children.
• On-treatment monitoring of adefovir therapy in chronic hepatitis B: virologic response can be assessed at 24 weeks.
• Complete clinical and virological remission of refractory HIV-related Kaposi’s sarcoma with pegylated interferon alpha.
• Antiretroviral therapy in patients with dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2.

Virus discovery, new previously unidentified viruses in man and animals.

Indentifying emerging pathogens | Deep sequencing:
• Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus neutralising serum antibodies in dromedary camels: a comparative serological study.
• Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus-EMC.
• Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia.
• Novel hepatitis E virus in ferrets, the Netherlands.
• Picobirnaviruses in the Human Respiratory Tract.
• High prevalence of anelloviruses in vitreous fluid of children with seasonal hyperacute panuveitis.
• Metagenomic analysis of the viral flora of pine marten and European badger feces.
• Calicivirus from novel recovirus genogroup in human diarrhea, bangladesh.
• Genogroup I and II picobirnaviruses in respiratory tracts of pigs.
• Enteric coronavirus in ferrets, The Netherlands.
• Identification and characterization of deer astroviruses.
• Human picobirnaviruses identified by molecular screening of diarrhea samples.
• Human astrovirus infection in a patient with new-onset celiac disease.
• A previously undescribed coronavirus associated with respiratory disease in humans.

Animal model development: other species / other viruses, etc.

Ferrets | Rabbits | Cats | Non-human primates:
• Low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus causes high mortality in ferrets upon intratracheal challenge: A model to study intervention strategies.
• Animal models.
• Distinct SARS-Coronavirus Induced Acute Lung Injury Pathways in Two Different Non-Human Primate Species.
• Experimental pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection of cats.
• Feasibility of single-shot H5N1 influenza vaccine in ferrets, macaques and rabbits.
• Cross-clade immunity in cats vaccinated with a canarypox-vectored avian influenza vaccine.

Animal model development: novel approaches

Immunocompromised ferret model | In vivo imaging | Rapid development of animal models for emerging viruses:
• Prolonged influenza virus shedding and emergence of antiviral resistance in immunocompromised patients and ferrets.
• Modification of the ferret model for pneumonia from seasonal human influenza a virus infection.
• Pulmonary pathology of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus (2009)-infected ferrets upon longitudinal evaluation by computed tomography.
• Severity of pneumonia due to new H1N1 influenza virus in ferrets is intermediate between that due to seasonal H1N1 virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus.
• Experimental pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection of cats.